That’s the difficulty with stretching a. Dawn of Humanity. Deep in a South African cave, an astounding discovery reveals clues to what made us human. Premiering online Thursday, September 10 and airing. While thrust faults are indeed common, Whitcomb and Morris are mistaken about the nature of the rocks associated with thrust faults. Their claim about fossils is.
Archaeology Wordsmith(View exact match)Iron Age. CATEGORY: chronology. DEFINITION: The period during which iron was utilized by early man, beginning about 3. Stone Age and Bronze Age in the Three- Age System. In this period, tools, implements, and weapons were first made of iron. Iron had many advantages over bronze, so its spread was rapid.
The Iron Age began at different times in different parts of the world according to the availability of iron ore and the state of knowledge. In Europe, the earliest iron appears around 1. BC. The traditional timing of the transition from bronze to iron is placed in the early 1st millennium BC. The age began about 1. BC in the Middle East, about 9. BC in southern Europe, and after 4.
South africa location, size, and extent topography climate flora and fauna environment population migration ethnic groups languages religions transportation history. It was not until the British discovery of the iconic Charnia in 1957 that the pre-Cambrian was seriously considered as containing life. This frond-shaped fossil was. Tanzania location, size, and extent topography climate flora and fauna environment population migration ethnic groups languages religions transportation history. Acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next.
BC in northern Europe. In most of Asia the Iron Age falls entirely within the historic period. In America, iron was introduced by the arrival of Europeans; in Africa, it began before the earlier metal ages. The southern African Iron Age is divided into the Early Iron Age, 2.
AD and the Late Iron Age, 1. AD till the 1. 9th century. The term is general and arbitrary. There is evidence that meteorites were used as a source of iron before 3.
BC, but extraction of the metal from ores dates from about 2. BC. Natal Early Iron Age. CATEGORY: site. DEFINITION: A South African province of Natal which has traces of the furthest southeastern extension of the Early Iron Age complex of sub- Saharan Africa, which has been linked with the dispersal of peoples speaking Bantu languages. Evidence for Early Iron Age settlement is found in the fertile areas of the lower river valleys and dates from about the 4th century AD. Closely related sites are known from the Transvaal, as at Broederstroom and Lydenburg. Proto- Three Kingdoms.
SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Late Iron Age, Lelang. CATEGORY: chronology. DEFINITION: The protohistoric period of the Korean peninsula, c 1- 3.
AD, which preceded the Three Kingdoms period of Koguryo, Silla, and the Paekche. Archaeological finds of the period are mainly from Lelang and Koguryo in the north and Samhan in the south.
Bronze and iron were used and iron made at shell midden sites on the southern coast. In actuality, the Three Kingdoms period was c 5. BC- 6. 68 AD. Display More Resultsachzib ware.
CATEGORY: ceramics. DEFINITION: A Phoenician, Iron Age II, red slip pottery type consisting primarily of jugs with trefoil mouth of mushroom. The best- documented example is a Wadi Kubbaniya where there is evidence of the earliest instances of plant cultivation anywhere in the world, confirming that this was a native African achievement.
Food production was generally not practiced in North Africa before about the 5th millennium BC. Most of the indigenous species such as finger and bulrush millet, sorghum, yams, African rice, teff, enset, and noog were brought under cultivation between the 4th and 2nd millennia BC. South of the Equator the advent of food production did not occur before the beginnings of the Iron Age. Akjoujt. CATEGORY: site. DEFINITION: A site in southern Mauritania that appears to have been an early copperworking center in Africa, from c. BC or earlier. It is one of the few Saharan or sub- Saharan areas where there may have been a Copper Age preceding the Iron Age. Arrowheads, spearheads, axes, pins, and some decorative items of copper are attributed to this period.
Alesia. CATEGORY: site. DEFINITION: An Iron Age site where the last Celtic stand against the Roman invasion in 5. BC took place. It is an oppidum with remains of Caesar's siege works. CATEGORY: artifact. DEFINITION: Fossilized pine resin, a transparent yellow, orange, or reddish- brown material from coniferous trees.
It is amorphous, having a specific gravity of 1. Mohs scale, and has two varieties - - gray and yellow. Amber was appreciated and popular in antiquity for its beauty and its supposed magical properties.
The southeast coast of the Baltic Sea is its major source in Europe, with lesser sources near the North Sea and in the Mediterranean. Amber is washed up by the sea. There is evidence of a strong trade in amber up the Elbe, Vistula, Danube, and into the Adriatic Sea area. The trade began in the Early Bronze Age and expanded greatly with the Mycenaeans and again with the Iron Age peoples of Italy. The Phoenicians were also specialist traders in amber.
The soft material was sometimes carved for beads and necklaces. Ananino. CATEGORY: culture. DEFINITION: An Iron Age culture of the mid- 1st millennium BC in the Volga basin of Russia that had strong connections with the Scythians to the south. Arene Candide. CATEGORY: site. DEFINITION: A cave site at Finale Ligure on the Italian Riviera whose excavation revealed a stratigraphy extending from the Upper Palaeolithic through Epi- Palaeolithic, to Early, Middle, and Late Neolithic, as well as poor levels from the Bronze and Iron Ages up to the Roman period.
There were some rich burials in the 1st, 2nd, and 4th levels. The 1. 94. 0s excavations by Bernab. It was an important trading post of the Romans after the mid- first century BC, though black- and- red ware found there began well before the period of Roman contact. A town with warehouses in an industrial quarter was built.
Black- and- red Iron Age wares associated with Arretine ware of the 1st century AD, Mediterranean amphorae, and imperial Roman coins were found by Wheeler. Other excavations have found Roman pottery, beads, intaglios, lamps, and glass which indicate continuous occupation. Graffiti on pottery indicates the presence of Indian traders. Arras. SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Aras.
CATEGORY: site; culture. DEFINITION: The site of an Iron Age cemetery in Yorkshire, England, with at least 9.
There are several related sites (Danes' Graves) in east Yorkshire with similar grave goods which define the Arras culture along with the burials. Material dates the Arras culture to c 5- 1 BC and the Arras people seem to have been intruders from the continent.
Their artifacts suggest links with the migrations of the Parisii from eastern France and the Rhineland. The chariot gear includes a distinctive three- link horse bit. Arthur (c 5th century AD?)CATEGORY: person. DEFINITION: The legendary British king who is described in medieval romances as the leader of a knightly fellowship called the Round Table.
It is said that he rallied the British against the Anglo- Saxon invaders and that behind the legend there may be a sub- Roman warleader who filled such a role. Though his name does not survive in contemporary records, he may have led the British at the battle or siege of Mount Badon which stopped the Saxon advance c 4.
AD for some fifty years hence. All the historical references to him in the chronicles of Bede, Gildas, Nenius, Geoffrey of Monmouth and others were written between 1. The search probably started with the monks of Glastonbury, who in 1. King Arthur and Queen Guinevere inscribed with the words, Here lies Arthur in the Isle of Avalon buried.
Various locations as far apart as Cornwall and Scotland are claimed as the site of Mount Badon; the refortified Iron Age hillfort of Badbury Rings in Dorset seems the most credible possibility. The site of Arthur's court at Camelot may be the historical site of South Cadbury. Excavations carried out at South Cadbury revealed an important fortified settlement of the 5th and 6th centuries which could have been the center from which British resistance to the Saxons was organized. There was an Iron Age Philistine city and material from the Roman period. Athens. SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: Ath.
The citadel on the Acropolis was walled early in its history. It is the capital of Greece and generally considered to be the birthplace of Western civilization. Athens is best known for its temples and public buildings of antiquity. The Parthenon, a columned, rectangular temple built for the city's patron goddess, Athena, is considered to be the culmination of the Doric order of classical Greek architecture.
Also located on the Acropolis are the Erechtheum, originally the temple of both Athena and Poseidon, and the Propylaea, the entrance of which is through the wall of the Acropolis. At the foot of the Acropolis, to the south, are the theaters of Herodes and Dionysus, while to the northwest is the Agora, the ancient marketplace of the city. The Kerameikos cemetery documents the city's Iron Age (c 1. BC), after which archaeology and history combine to tell of its brilliance through the classical period.
It supposedly rivaled Knossos and later resisted successive waves of Dorian invaders. It is still not clear how far Athens, perhaps the base of the very early Ionian colonies, managed to ride out the 'dark age' that followed the collapse of Mycenaean civilization. There is evidence of a cultural and commercial renaissance in the 7th and 6th centuries BC. A major component of this socioeconomic revolution was the borrowing of the Phoenician alphabet for the writing of Greek.
Commercial success brought rapid economic growth and a population explosion. New ideas were imported and political upheaval led to experiments in government, such as democracy.
Athens resisted Persian invaders and developed a prestige which allowed the establishment of the Delian League and the extension of her political power - - the Athenian empire. In the years 4. 47- 4. BC, under Pericles, vast sums were spent on public works, such as the new group of buildings on the Acropolis including the Parthenon. Pericles would not grant the Hellenes the freedom requested by Sparta, which led to the Peloponnesian War (4.
BC) after which Athens was a dependent of Sparta. Escape from Spartan imperialism in the 4th century BC was threatened by Philip of Macedon and Alexander the Great.
By the end of the century, Macedon dominated and Athens did not achieve independence until 2. BC. Rome then intruded in the 2nd and 1st centuries and Athens was sieged and plundered by Sulla.
Strange Science: Timeline. This (by no means comprehensive!) list chronicles some of the major events in the history of paleontology and biology. BC- A sagacious rock- shelter resident at Arcy- sur- Cure, France, drills holes through a trilobite in order to wear it as an amulet. BC- Herodotus relates the griffin myth.
Later historians will speculate that this skeleton might consist of whale bones from Palestine. Roman army surgeon Dioscorides compiles information on medicinal plants that will survive as a trusted resource for centuries in the form of De Materia Medica. Pliny the Elder publishes a 3. Containing both accurate and inaccurate information, it will become the basis of many scientific disciplines. Galen will establish the concept of humors (phlegm, blood, black bile and yellow bile) that determine both health and personality. Belief in these four humors will dominate medicine and biology for many centuries. Pausanias records a description of the skeleton of the hero Ajax.
In The City of God, Augustine of Hippo (Saint Augustine) recounts the discovery of an enormous tooth in Utica (Tunisia), and attributes the tooth to a giant. Townspeople in a district of Constantinople present a book on plants to their patron, Julia Anicia. Juliana's codex will stand as perhaps the best compilation of Western knowledge about plants for the next 1,0.
A Japanese chronicle, the Hitachi Fudoki, describes a shell mound, perhaps one of the oldest descriptions of prehistoric remains in medieval writings. Science writer Al Jahiz describes some 3. Book of Animals, in which he mentions their . Syrian Shiite Muslims known as the Brothers of Purity publish an encyclopedia, The Aim of the Sage, with thorough and accurate descriptions of the process of rock stratification. He also writes an important work on erosion, perhaps describing the concept of superposition. Philippe de Thaun produces the first French bestiary (known to later historians). It is based primarily on the Latin Physiologus, which may have been composed in Egypt in the second century AD.
Adelard of Bath writes Quaestiones Naturales stressing the need to look for natural causes of natural phenomena. William of Conches publishes Philosophia Mundi, a comprehensive work on the natural world.
In it, he argues that natural phenomena result from natural forces. Abbess and polymath Hildegard of Bingen authors a work describing the unicorn, and stating that the creature is attracted only to high- born women, not peasants. Aristotle's writings, preserved largely by Muslim scholars, become available to Europeans. The writings will be partially or completely banned by the papacy over the next five decades, but finally become mandatory material for university lectures. Albertus Magnus, author of one of the first bestiaries to express skepticism about medieval animal lore, publishes his Book of Minerals.
Later folklorists will surmise that this site has been chosen because the tracks are believed to provide supernatural protection. It will not be published until nearly 4. Richard of Holdingham produces the Hereford Map, showing the . The result will be Description of the World, a reasonably restrained and accurate account of distant lands. In arguing for her canonization, they will describe objects found inside her body, including a crucifix in her heart and three stones in her gallbladder, which they interpret as symbols of the Trinity.
He rejects the 3. Sir John Mandeville's Travels is released. The book turns out to be fiction, a composite of classical and medieval sources, describing such wonders as the phoenix, the vegetable lamb, gold- guarding griffins and gold- digging ants.
Theology master Nicole Oresme publishes De Causis Mirabilium describing natural causes of natural phenomena and discouraging invocations of God or demons to explain them. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna find a huge femur (probably from a mammoth). The bone is inscribed with its discovery date and the motto of Emperor Frederick III, and chained to one of the cathedral doors.
The work, covering alchemy, astrology, medicine, botany, and other topics, will be translated in three years and published in 1. The pamphlets will fly until 1. Leonardo da Vinci proposes that fossil marine shells have not been carried to their present locations by a deluge, nor created on the spot. Curious crowds follow the beast the entire length of its journey through Italy.
It turns out to be Europe's first best- selling herbal. It is one of the few works by Paracelsus to be published during his lifetime. He will later publish immensely popular Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body. Many of the sea creatures in this map will be reproduced by later authors. He also states that infection can spread through direct contact, clothes and airborne germs. The hypothesis attracts little attention.
The publisher, Girolamo Ruscelli, will later claim authorship. Enormously popular, the book will total 1. Over the next century, well- traveled naturalists will abandon such goals as unrealistic. Roger Plat composes Jewell House of Art and Nature, a motley assortment natural knowledge, and medical and practical tips. Midway through the printing process, he is accused of copying the work of a fellow botanist, Mathias de L'Obel, and sloppily at that.
They rightly attribute the fossil to a proboscidean, but wrongly guess it belonged to one of Hannibal's elephants. Christopher Wirtzung relays a recipe for relief of bladder stones. The ingredient list includes buck blood, hare and scorpion ashes, and lapis judaicus (fossil sea urchin spines). Like Rondelet several decades earlier, he attracts little attention. The invention will enable the Linceans to study natural objects with unprecedented precision. They will start with bees, then move on to flies and dust mites. Over the next year, d'Arcos will send a big tooth from the site to French naturalist Nicolas- Claude Fabri de Peiresc, who will identify the tooth as belonging to an elephant.
Though resulting from meticulous research, the work reaches the wrong conclusion, describing the origin of fossil wood as inorganic. Permission is denied, but he will publish Men Before Adam anonymously 1.
A court physician to the Danish king observes the excavation, measures the skeleton in . It will later be identified as a fossil proboscidian. Six years later, his work will be answered by Alexander Ross's Arcana Microcosmi, a refutation that defends traditional authorities. Collectively, these publications will be known as the Battle of the Books.
Using his calculations, theologians will identify the date of creation as on October 2. BC. Though an alchemist himself with his own cache of secret notebooks, Boyle begins writing up experiments for use by others.
He concludes that the dung and rotting meat in his experiments are merely breeding sites for preexisting vermin. Two years later, he will challenge the spontaneous generation claims of Kircher. Remarkably, the human subject survives. A year later, he will publish Historia Insectorum Generalis. As he will die before he can publish his conclusions, his brother William will print his article . John Somner. Olfert Dapper publishes Die Unbekante Neue Welt describing America.
The book includes a picture of a unicorn with an American eagle on its back. The Gray's Inn Lane handaxe will later be dated at 3. Less far in the future, the specimens will spur Hans Sloane's interest in fossil elephants. He claims that mountains (viewed as ugly signs of decay) formed from a catastrophic flood, but that the Earth will reassume a perfectly spherical shape.
The museum's practice of allowing entry to anyone who pays the admission fee horrifies scholars from continental Europe. The female members of the Lister clan may be among the first of the feminine sex to use microscopes in making scientific drawings. In it, he describes ichthyosaur remains as those of a fish. Rumphius is published. It provides detailed descriptions of soft and hard shellfish, minerals, rocks and fossils from Indonesia.
It will initially be identified (by Cotton Mather) as that of a human giant who perished in Noah's flood, then correctly identified (by Georges Cuvier) as that of a mastodon. The czar buys the inventory, and Seba begins his second collection, which he will describe in print starting in 1. He suggests instead that the region was once covered by the sea. Included is a description of what he believes is a fossilized victim of the biblical flood. The bones will be shipped back to France and become the first American fossils studied by scientists.
After watching them move and eat, he has concluded that the simple creatures (later to be classified as cnidarians) are animals, not plants. The experiment provides evidence that blood contains iron. Under pressure from the Faculty of Theology of Paris, he will publish a retraction in the next volume. Fifteen years later, Italian polymath Lazzaro Spallanzani will conduct a more careful set of experiments then publish a report rejecting Needham's conclusions. Although he does not relate these systems to scripture, many people will interpret them in terms of biblical events.
Preserved by the Albani family, this . The objects are really fossil sea urchins. Accompanying Cook is naturalist Joseph Banks, who will collect tens of thousands of plant and animal specimens and initiate the exchange of flora and fauna between Europe, the Americas and the South Seas. Bowing to social pressure, he removes it shortly thereafter. Though he describes it in different terms, he has discovered oxygen.
He concludes that the bones got there by accident, an opinion Cuvier will share. Unlike many older natural history repositories, this institution will admit any visitor, at least anyone meeting the museum's standards for dress and hygiene. Abraham Gottlob Werner asserts that all rocks have been deposited by a primordial ocean. He also addresses the issue of race, describing Native Americans favorably, but African slaves unfavorably.