Central Europe - Wikipedia. Major geographic features of central Europe. Central Europe lies between Eastern Europe and Western Europe.
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While the region's economy shows high disparities with regard to income. Eastern Europe, which remained Eastern Orthodox Christian, was the area of Byzantine cultural influence; after the schism (1. The area developed cultural unity and resistance to the Western world (Catholic and Protestant) within the framework of Slavonic language and the Cyrillic alphabet. He explained that between the 1. Christianization and its cultural consequences were implemented, but well- defined social features emerged in Central Europe based on Western characteristics. The keyword of Western social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe.
These phenomena appeared in the middle of the 1. Central European countries. There were self- governments of towns, counties and parliaments. Even in Eastern Europe, industrialization lagged far behind. Russia, for example, remained largely rural and agricultural, and its autocratic rulers kept the peasants in serfdom. However, the very first concept mixed science, politics and economy – it was strictly connected with intensively growing German economy and its aspirations to dominate a part of European continent called Mitteleuropa.
The German term denoting Central Europe was so fashionable that other languages started referring to it when indicating territories from Rhine to Vistula, or even Dnieper, and from the Baltic Sea to the Balkans. Partsch’s book of 1. Another time, the term Central Europe became connected to the German plans of political, economic and cultural domination. Naumann's idea was that the federation would have at its centre Germany and the Austro- Hungarian Empire but would also include all European nations outside the Anglo- French alliance, on one side, and Russia, on the other. The revival of the idea may be observed during the Hitler era. Interwar period. Italy and Yugoslavia are not considered by the author to be Central European because they are located mostly outside Central Europe.
The author use both Human and Physical Geographical features to define Central Europe. The centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have (re)appeared on the map of Europe: Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland. Central Europe ceased to be the area of German aspiration to lead or dominate and became a territory of various integration movements aiming at resolving political, economic and national problems of . However, the conflict of interests was too big and neither Little Entente nor Intermarium (Mi. Before World War I, it embraced mainly German states (Germany, Austria), non- German territories being an area of intended German penetration and domination – German leadership position was to be the natural result of economic dominance.
At that time the scientists took interest in the idea: the International Historical Congress in Brussels in 1. Central Europe, and the 1. Congress continued the discussions. The Sourcebook of Central European avantgards (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) contains primary documents of the avant- gardes in Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia from 1. In this view Bohemia and Moravia, with its dual Western Slavic and Germanic heritage, combined with the historic element of the . In fact, many people from the new states of Germany do not identify themselves as being part of Western Europe and therefore prefer the term . Czech author Milan Kundera (emigrant to France) thus wrote in 1.
On the other hand, the topic became popular in Western Europe and the United States, much of the research being carried out by immigrants from Central Europe. Sinnhuber (Central Europe: Mitteleuropa: Europe Centrale: An Analysis of a Geographical Term). Besides Austria, only marginal Central European states of Finland and Yugoslavia did preserve their political sovereignty to a certain degree, being left out from any military alliances in Europe.
According to Meyers Enzyklop. The issue of how to name and define the Central European region is subject to debates. Very often, the definition depends on the nationality and historical perspective of its author.
Main propositions, gathered by Jerzy K. Central Europe understood in this way borders on Russia and South- Eastern Europe, but the exact frontier of the region is difficult to determine. Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Habsburg Empire (later Austria- Hungary) – a concept which is popular in regions along the Danube River. A concept underlining the links connecting Belarus and Ukraine with Russia and treating the Russian Empire together with the whole Slavic.
Orthodox population as one entity – this position is taken by the Russian historiography. A concept putting an accent on the links with the West, especially from the 1.
Nation- states – this idea is represented by in the South- Eastern states, which prefer the enlarged concept of the . Katzenstein described Central Europe as a way station in a Europeanization process that marks the transformation process of the Visegr. Johnson points out criteria to distinguish Central Europe from Western, Eastern and Southeast Europe. For example, Lithuania, a fair share of Belarus and western Ukraine are in Eastern Europe today, but 2. Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, according to Romanian researcher Maria Bucur this very ambitious project suffers from the weaknesses imposed by its scope (almost 1. Encarta Encyclopedia and Encyclop.
The term is mostly used to denominate the territory between the Schelde to Vistula and from the Danube to the Moravian Gate. Usually the countries considered to be Central European are Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland; in the broader sense Romania too, occasionally also Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The European floristic regions. The comprehension of the concept of Central Europe is an ongoing source of controversy. Benelux countries are generally considered a part of Western Europe, rather than Central Europe.
Nevertheless, they are occasionally mentioned in the Central European context due to cultural, historical and linguistic ties. The following states or some of their regions may sometimes be included in Central Europe: Geography. The borders to Western Europe and Eastern Europe are geographically less defined and for this reason the cultural and historical boundaries migrate more easily West- East than South- North.
The Rhine river which runs South- North through Western Germany is an exception. According to the Freie Universitaet Berlin, this mountain chain is classified as South Central European. It includes countries of varied sizes, ranging from tiny Liechtenstein to Germany, the largest European country by population (that is entirely placed in Europe). Demographic figures for countries entirely located within notion of Central Europe (.
Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland use their currencies (Croatian kuna, Czech koruna, Hungarian forint, Polish z. Switzerland uses its own currency, Swiss franc. Human Development Index.
That caused construction of rail and other types of infrastructure. Central Europe contains the continent's earliest railway systems, whose greatest expansion was recorded in Austro- Hungarian and German territories between 1. Railway density, with total length of lines operated (km) per 1,0.
Czech Republic (1. Poland (1. 21. 0), Slovenia (1. Germany (1. 05. 5), Hungary (9. Slovakia (7. 3. 9) and Croatia (7. Industrialisation has reached Central Europe relatively early: Luxembourg and Germany by 1.
Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Switzerland by 1. Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Liechtenstein, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia by 1. Germany is the world's largest hops producer with 3. Poland is the world's largest triticale producer, second largest producer of raspberry, currant, third largest of rye, the fifth apple and buckwheat producer, and seventh largest producer of potatoes.
The Czech Republic is world's fourth largest hops producer and 8th producer of triticale. Hungary is world's fifth hops and seventh largest triticale producer. Serbia is world's second largest producer of plums and second largest of raspberries. All of them have the literacy rate of 9. Languages. The most popular language taught at schools in Central Europe as foreign languages are: English, French and German. In the last study, countries scored medium, below or over the average scores in three fields studied.
It was established in 1. Hungarian philanthropist George Soros, who has provided an endowment of US$8. Europe. Its current members include (year it joined for the first time in brackets). Four Central European countries are amongst those countries with higher numbers of World Heritage Sites: Religion. Large Protestant groups include Lutheran and Calvinist. Significant populations of Eastern Catholicism and Old Catholicism are also prevalent throughout Central Europe.
Central Europe has been a centre of Protestantism in the past; however, it has been mostly eradicated by the Counterreformation. Romania and Serbia are mostly Eastern Orthodox with significant Protestant and Catholic minorities. Before the Holocaust (1.
Ashkenazi Jewish community in the region, numbering approximately 1. Most countries share many dishes. The most popular dishes typical to Central Europe are sausages and cheeses, where the earliest evidence of cheesemaking in the archaeological record dates back to 5,5. BCE (Kujawy, Poland). List of countries by beer consumption per capita is led by the Czech Republic, followed by Germany and Austria.
Poland comes 5th, Croatia 7th and Slovenia 1. Human rights. In 1. Hungary defined for the first time the rights of the nobility in its .
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