Steam Password Hack Let Gamers Steal Each Other's Accounts For A Week . The security flaw, which Steam- maker Valve downplayed as a “bug,” temporarily enabled hackers to take control of a Steam user's entire account, and left many gamers locked out of their accounts entirely. For the past week Steam users have complained that their accounts were being accessed and manipulated from other PCs. Elm Hoe, a Steam gamer known for his You. Tube presence, help spread word of the breach on July 2.
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Hackers would go to Steam's Lost Password page, enter the targeted account and simply click Continue when asked to enter their email verification. The whole process is laid out here: A Valve spokesperson told the gaming site Kotaku the company only learned of what seems to be a major security flaw on July 2. El Hoe posted his video) and fixed the issue immediately.“To protect users, we are resetting passwords on accounts with suspicious password changes during that period or may have otherwise been affected. Relevant users will receive an email with a new password,” the Steam statement said. Also, if Steam Guard was enabled, the account was protected from unauthorized logins even if the password was modified.”.
For the bibliographic metadata standard, see COin. S. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually metal or alloy, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes.
Usually the highest value coin in circulation (i. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation.
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If the difference becomes significant, the issuing authority may decide to withdraw these coins from circulation, possibly issuing new equivalents with a different composition, or the public may decide to melt the coins down or hoard them (see Gresham's law). Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value also occur for some bullion coins made of copper, silver, or gold (and, rarely, other metals, such as platinum or palladium), intended for collectors or investors in precious metals. Examples of modern gold collector/investor coins include the British sovereign minted by the United Kingdom, the American Gold Eagle minted by the United States, the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf minted by Canada, and the Krugerrand, minted by South Africa. While the Eagle, Maple Leaf, and Sovereign coins have nominal (purely symbolic) face values; the Krugerrand does not. Historically, a great quantity of coinage metals (including alloys) and other materials (e. Coins spread rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, throughout Greece and Persia, and further to the Balkans.
Important Roman gold and silver coins were continued into the Middle Ages (see Gold dinar, Solidus, Aureus, Denarius). Ancient and early medieval coins in theory had the value of their metal content, although there have been many instances throughout history of the metal content of coins being debased, so that the inferior coins were worth less in metal than their face value.
Fiat money first arose in medieval China, with the jiaozi paper money. Early paper money was introduced in Europe in the later Middle Ages, but some coins continued to have the value of the gold or silver they contained throughout the Early Modern period. The penny was minted as a silver coin until the 1. The first circulating United States coins were cents (pennies), produced in 1. Late Bronze Age metal ingots were given standard shapes, such as the shape of an . In the late Chinese Bronze Age, standardized cast tokens were made, such as those discovered in a tomb near Anyang.
Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch. Anatolian gold coin from 4th century BCE Mysia.
A coin is a small, flat, round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in. Read the latest Science News and Technology News including Sci-Tech updates and Science News. Read more Science and Tech News online at News.com.au. A music video game, also commonly known as a music game, is a video game where the gameplay is meaningfully and often almost entirely oriented around the player's. JPGs is a photo peek into wherever gamers might find interesting. If you’re a photographer and have images you want to share, drop us a line!
Greek drachma of Aegina. Obverse: Land Chelone / Reverse: . The oldest Aegina Chelone coins depicted sea turtles and were minted c. Rose) and Pollux (Onamastikon IX. Hermodike of Kyme. Therefore, the dating of these coins relies primarily on archaeological evidence, with the most commonly cited evidence coming from excavations at the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, also called the Ephesian Artemision (which would later evolve into one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World). Because the oldest lion head .
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Anatolian Artemis was the . This coin has a Greek legend reading phaenos emi sema. The coins of Phanes are known to be amongst the earliest of Greek coins, a hemihekte of the issue was found in the foundation deposit of the temple of Artemis at Ephesos (the oldest deposit of electrum coins discovered). One assumption is that Phanes was a wealthy merchant, another that this coin is associated with Apollo- Phanes and, due to the Deer, with Artemis (twin sister of the god of light Apollo- Phaneos). Although only seven Phanes type coins were discovered, it is also notable that 2. Artemis and the sun burst of Apollo- Phaneos. Alternatively, Phanes may have been the Halicarnassian mercenary of Amasis mentioned by Herodotus, who escaped to the court of Cambyses, and became his guide in the invasion of Egypt in 5.
BCE. According to Herodotus, this Phanes was buried alive by a sandstorm, together with 5. Persian soldiers, while trying to conquer the temple of Amun–Zeus in Egypt. With the Achemenid conquest of Gandhara under Darius the Great c.
BCE, the practice spread to the Indo- Gangetic Plain. The coins of this period were called Puranas, Karshapanas or Pana. Mahajanapadas that minted their own coins included Gandhara, Kuntala, Kuru, Panchala, Shakya, Surasena and Surashtra. These barter rings are bigger than doughnuts in size and are made of pure gold from the Archaic period (c. Gall silver Plappart of 1. Despite its high denomination, this coin's monetary value dropped to a tiny fraction of a US cent by the end of 1. Currency. This means that the value of the coin is decreed by government fiat (law), and thus is determined by the free market only in as much as national currencies are used in domestic trade and also traded internationally on foreign exchange markets.
Thus, these coins are monetary tokens, just as paper currency is: they are usually not backed by metal, but rather by some form of government guarantee. Some have suggested that such coins not be considered to be . Thus, there is very little economic difference between notes and coins of equivalent face value. Coins may be in circulation with fiat values lower than the value of their component metals, but they are never initially issued with such value, and the shortfall only arises over time due to inflation, as market values for the metal overtake the fiat declared face value of the coin. Examples are the pre- 1. US dime, quarter, half dollar, and dollar (nominally containing slightly less than a tenth, quarter, half, and full ounce of silver, respectively), US nickel, and pre- 1. US penny. As a result of the increase in the value of copper, the United States greatly reduced the amount of copper in each penny.
Since mid- 1. 98. United States pennies are made of 9. Extreme differences between fiat values and metal values of coins cause coins to be hoarded or removed from circulation by illicit smelters in order to realise the value of their metal content.
This is an example of Gresham's law. The United States Mint, in an attempt to avoid this, implemented new interim rules on December 1.
If a coin is greatly lacking in all of these, it is unlikely to be worth much. The value of bullion coins is also influenced to some extent by those factors, but is largely based on the value of their gold, silver, or platinum content. Sometimes non- monetized bullion coins such as the Canadian Maple Leaf and the American Gold Eagle are minted with nominal face values less than the value of the metal in them, but as such coins are never intended for circulation, these face values have no relevance.
Medium of expression. In the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in the United States there are some regulations specific to nickels and pennies that are informative on this topic. It cost more than face value to manufacture pennies or nickels, so any widespread loss of the coins in circulation could be expensive for the US Treasury. This was more of a problem when coins were still made of precious metals like silver and gold, so strict laws against alteration make more sense historically. CFR . By replacing some fraction of a coin's precious metal content with a base metal (often copper or nickel), the intrinsic value of each individual coin was reduced (thereby . Debasement occasionally occurs in order to make the coin physically harder and therefore less likely to be worn down as quickly, but the more usual reason is to profit from the difference between face value and metal value. Debasement of money almost always leads to price inflation.
Sometimes price controls are at the same time also instituted by the governing authority, but historically these have generally proved unworkable. The United States is unusual in that it has only slightly modified its coinage system (except for the images and symbols on the coins, which have changed a number of times) to accommodate two centuries of inflation. The one- cent coin has changed little since 1.
On the other end of the spectrum, the largest coin in common circulation is valued at 2. Increases in the prices of copper, nickel, and zinc meant that both the US one- and five- cent coins became worth more for their raw metal content than their face (fiat) value. In particular, copper one- cent pieces (those dated prior to 1. Some denominations of circulating coins that were formerly minted in the United States are no longer made. These include coins with a face value of a half cent, two cents, three cents, and twenty cents. In addition, cents were originally slightly larger than the modern quarter and weighed nearly half an ounce, while five- cent coins (known then as .
Dollar coins were also much larger, and weighed approximately an ounce. One- dollar gold coins are no longer produced and rarely used. The US also issues bullion and commemorative coins with the following denominations: 5. The coins were defaced, smoothed and inscribed, either by stippling or engraving, with sometimes touching words of loss.
These coins were called . This form of debasement in Tudor England was commented on by Sir Thomas Gresham, whose name was later attached to Gresham's law. The monarch would have to periodically recall circulating coins, paying only the bullion value of the silver, and reminting them. This, also known as recoinage, is a long and difficult process that was done only occasionally. The other side, which may carry the denomination, is usually called the reverse, or colloquially, tails. The year of minting is usually shown on the obverse, although some Chinese coins, most Canadian coins, the pre- 2. British 2. 0p coin, the post- 1.
American quarter, and all Japanese coins, are exceptions.